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The Islamic Emirate And Systems: An Overview of the Taliban’s Manifesto of Statehood

By Dr. Jawad Borhani

1. The “Islamic Emirate Order/System” is a book, that has been recently published by the Taliban’s head of the supreme court, Mawlawi Abdul Hakim Haqqani, with a one-page introduction by Mullah Hebatullah Akhundzada. The book is written in Arabic language and has 312 pages, published by the school of Dar al-Uloom al-Sharia.

2. Mullah Hebatullah read parts of the book and asked a number of religious scholars (Ulema) to read it and express their opinion about it and as a result, it was approved and praised.

3. On the cover page, there is a picture of the Arg building (Afghan presidential palace) with the white flag of the Taliban, a phone number and an email address.

4. After Mullah Hebatullah, Malawi Ammar Al-Madani wrote another introduction for the book, and discussed two topics – one topic dealt with the usage of science and pen to guide and explain the policies, and the other topic talked about the usage of sword and gun for gaining power and victory. It also speaks of the comprehensiveness of Islam and praises promoters of Islamic culture and Islamic politicians who have worked to implement the religious system.

5. Another part of the book talks about the author Haqqani Kandahari’s biography which has been written by Abdul Ghani Maiwandi. The biography states that the author of the book studied Arabic literature, jurisprudence, commentary and hadith at the Haqqani School in Peshawar and Balochistan with Sunni scholars. He graduated in 1980, and taught for many years in Afghanistan and Quetta, Pakistan. The author of the book, in addition to teaching in the fields of jurisprudence and hadith, has written books about the etiquettes of eating and drinking; teacher and the learner, the etiquette of the Mufti and the Mustafti (the learner) among others.

6. In the first chapter, the author states that the main goal of the Islamic Emirate after the victory of the Taliban and the defeat and departure of the Americans and their allies, is the implementation of God’s law in Afghanistan and the formation of an Islamic state based on Islamic law and Hanafi jurisprudence.

7. The author has divided the government into two types, Jabayat (tax collection) and “Hedayat” (guidance/advise) and has criticized the first form of governance and approved the second. The author says that the Islamic government should be the government of “Hedayat”, not the government that exploits the poor for the benefit of government officials. The “Hedayat” or guidance government is an Islamic government in which the only law that is accepted is the divine law, and not those set by the people.

8. In another part of the book, the author deals with the sources of Sharia and the Islamic state and mentions the Qur’an, hadith, Qiyas (analogy), benevolence, and consensus, among others.

9. In another part of the book, religion and judgment are discussed. The book states that judging should be done only in accordance to the official Hanafi sect and other sects have no place in the judgment. The author states that “perhaps in my state, I do not have permission for judicial privileges for minorities”, the government should not be there for religious minorities, because if minorities find privileges in the judiciary, it will cause the defeat of the religious system, as he believed, it was the case in the Ottoman rule. The author also states that other sects than Hanafi, are considered a disgrace and shame; as it is not allowed in the Afghan people’s custom to marry a Hanafi girl to a non-Hanafi person.

10. In another part of his book, the author refers to the Pashtun custom (Pashtunwali) and considers it important and states that people should take care of the custom by wearing Afghan clothes, burqa and turban, among others.

11. In the other part of the book, freedom of expression and belief in accordance with Islamic law have been discussed. Among the religious titles for the head of the Islamic State, he chose “Amir-ul-Mominin” and states that obedience to him is obligatory for the Islamic Ummah and opposition to him is worthy of death. There are lots of hadith and Quran verses in the book, and “Amir-ul-Mominin” is considered the symbol of “Ulu al-Amr”. The author also mentioned the government flags (Rayat and Lewa); according to him, the “Lewa” (the formal great flag of the Islamic government) should be in white color and “Rayat” (the flags that smaller tribes and units are using) should be black.

12. The author also referred to the election of the Amir ul-Mominin, which should be in accordance with the practice of the Four caliphs, which is done through allegiance, domination, and the formation of a council of the influential and prominent people in the country. The author considers democracy and elections to be un-Islamic and corrupt, which Muslims should not practice them.

13. The characteristics for Amir-ul-Mominin have also been discussed in detail in the book and stated that Amir-ul-Mominin should be a man, not a woman. There are narrations in which it is said that women should stay at home and not engage in politics, otherwise the work will be ruined.

14. An important part of the book deals with the duties of the Amir-ul-Mominin and the policy of the Four caliphs. The author named the Four caliphs and listed the ten important duties of the Amir in the book.

15. The book also talks about different ministries, starting with the Ministry of Defense and explained the conditions and duties of the Army of the Islamic Emirate. The Ministry of Interior, the Judiciary and the Council are discussed in detail. The author has proved and supported the formation of the Islamic Council with religious reasons and has stated conditions for its members, one of which is to be a man and a woman has no place in the Islamic Council. According to the author, women should get used to raising children and handling marital affairs.

16. The other part of the book deals with modern education and states that the educational system must be religious, and non-religious education weakens Islam and Muslims. According to the author, many of the problems in Afghanistan have been caused by modern education.

Another chapter has been dedicated to women’s education. The book states that there is no problem regarding women’s education, but its quality must be in accordance with Islamic law, which does not cause corruption, and women must be educated by their family members (in-house). Women should not go out of their homes unnecessarily, as stated in the Qur’an, the book stated.

The author also discussed co-education and considered it totally “Haram” (forbidden). He also mentioned that this system is not in accordance with Afghani zeal (Ghairat-e-Afghani).

17. The “Islamic Emirate System” book has used different sources, but has given few references and on the other hand, the book has a table of contents, but the sources used in it, have not been listed.

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